Hematology is the branch of pathology or medicine that involves the study of the causes, treatments, prognosis, and prevention of blood-related conditions. Any disease that affects the blood and its components such as hemoglobin, blood proteins, platelets, blood cells, and bone marrow is classified in this category. The diseases can include leukemia, hemophilia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. The physicians who specialize in the fields of hematology are called hematologists or hematopathologists. Since hematology is very broad, there is room for more specializing and get into more specific disciplines that include;
Haemato-oncology discipline involves the study and treatment of blood cancers such as acute and chronic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. These cancers occur because of cell overgrowth, so the physicians focus on how to control blood cells and other blood components from growing out of control. Hematology jobs are available for people who specialize in Haemato-oncology are plenty because blood-related cancers are on the rise.
Another popular discipline in hematology is hemostasis and thrombosis because they are two sides of the same coin. Hemostasis is basically blood clotting, which is normal and prevents too much blood loss in case of an injury. Thrombosis, on the other hand, is the formation of clots inside the blood vessels, which is the main cause of heart attacks, stroke, and anginas. The physicians who specialize in this area, therefore, study and treat hemostasis and thrombosis disorders, whether congenital or acquired. They can include bleeding disorders like hemophilia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
- Blood cell production disorders.
Blood cell disorders occur when there is a problem with red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets. Red blood cells carry oxygen to different organs, while white blood cells carry nutrients and fight infections. Some of the conditions that come up as a result of blood cell abnormalities include various forms of anemia, thalassemia, hemophilia, Von Willebrand disease, primary thrombocythemia, and blood cancers.
- Transfusion medicine
Transfusion is yet another. Many people think that any doctor is allowed to perform a blood transfusion. This is a vast discipline that involves using another person’s blood to treat a patient. Transfusion therapy is an area that requires a lot of knowledge on blood types, blood sources, donor selection, and blood collection. The physicians who are experts in transfusion usually run the blood bank in hospitals and blood donor centers across the world.
- Pediatric Hematology
Children have unique medical needs that require specialized care. Pediatric hematology specifically looks at blood disorders in children from birth to teenage. After finishing medical school, the physician has to do pediatric residency and then study pediatric hematology for three additional years. This discipline is one of the most complicated areas; hence the many years of study and hands-on experience because children are very delicate. A pediatric doctor also needs to have a personality that sits well with kids and also have a special liking and understanding of children.
The sky is the limit when it comes to hematology, and there are many fields one can specialize in. In the course of the training, the institutions will give you hands-on experience in your field of choice so you can find the relevant opportunities in your job search.